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The working of Industrial biogas plants are very similar to small-scale or agricultural biogas plants as far as the digester technique is concerned. The major difference is in the input process methodology and the plant capacity which differs. The input feedstock for industrial biogas plants is provided by the industrial food waste or waste from the food processing industry. Various types of feedstock can be used for the production of biogas: animal manure and slurries, crop residues, organic wastes from dairy production, food industries and agro industries, wastewater sludge, organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, organic household wastes and from catering business waste as well as energy crops such as maize, corn etc. These substrates are to be mixed, exempted from unsuitable matter, chopped or diluted and then used as feedstock.

Energy crops

One main advantage of biogas production is the ability to use wet biomass type of feedstock. All characterized by moisture content higher than 60–70% such as sewage sludge, animal slurries, sludge from food processing industries etc. In recent years, a number of energy crops such as grains, maize, rapeseed, are been largely used as feedstock for biogas production in some countries like Germany and Austria. Besides energy crops, all kinds of agricultural residues, damaged crops, unsuitable for food or resulting from unfavorable growing and weather conditions, can be used to produce biogas and fertilizer. A number of animal by-products, not suitable for human consumption, can also be utilized in biogas plants.

Biogas – Financial Viability

In an Industrial Biogas plant, the ownership structure differs from that of private farm plants. The owners are mostly corporate companies, limited companies or Investors. Industrial plants have the need for more and better organization of work as volumes of raw substrates; biogas and other by products are much higher as compared to a private farm plant. These are mostly co- digestion plants which are planned for handling more than one type of substrate. Hence this work necessitates a good infrastructure setup.

Centralized co-digestion

Centralized co-digestion is a concept based on digesting various substrates, collected from several locations, in a biogas plant centrally located in the collection area. The central location of the biogas plant aims at reducing monetary expenses, time and manpower for the transport of biomass to and from the biogas plant.
Centralized AD plants co-digest cattle dung with a variety of other suitable co-substrates such as digestible residues from agriculture, food and fish industries, separately collected organic household wastes, and sewage sludge. The centralized co-digestion plants also known as joint co-digestion plants were developed and were largely used in regions with intensive animal farming activity.
Cattle dung and slurries are collected from the pre-storage tanks or from the slurry channels and transported in special container trucks to the biogas plant, as per a fixed schedule. At the biogas plant, the manure is mixed with the other co substrates, homogenized and pumped inside the digester tank.
Centralized co-digestion plants can be organized as co-operative companies, with farmers supplying manure an energy consumers as shareholders. The management of the biogas plant is undertaken by a board of directors, which also employs the necessary personnel and is responsible for economic and legal binding agreements concerning the construction of the plant, the feedstock supply, the distribution and sale of the organic fertilizer both liquid and solid, the sale of biogas, electricity and the financing activities.
The co-operative company proved to be a functional organizational structure, economically feasible, but other organization forms like Ltd. companies or municipally owned companies are also common.

Biogas Polygeneration
Biogas as equal to Natural gas

Biogas can be distributed through the existing natural gas networks and used for the same purpose as natural gas or it can be compressed and used as bio methane which is a renewable vehicle fuel. Prior to injection into the natural gas grid or to utilization as vehicle fuel, biogas must undergo an upgrading process, where all contaminants as well as carbon dioxide are removed and the content of methane must is increased from the usual 50-75% to more than 95%. This purified biogas is called biomethane.

Biogas utilization as transport fuel

Utilization of biogas in the transport sector is a technology with great potential and with vital socio-economic benefits. Biogas is already used as vehicle fuel in many European countries. The number of private cars, public transport vehicles and trucks driven on biomethane is on the increase. Biomethane can be used as fuel in the same way and by the same vehicles like the natural gas. An increasing number of European countries are changing their diesel buses with biomethane driven ones.

Biogas on the gas grid

Upgraded biogas (biomethane) can be injected and distributed through the natural gas grid, after it has been compressed to the pipeline pressure. There are several advantages of using the gas grid for distribution of biomethane. One important advantage is that the grid connects the production site of biomethane, which is usually in rural areas, with more densely populated areas. This enables the gas to reach new customers. It is also possible to increase the biogas production at a remote site, without concerns about utilization of heat excess. Grid injection means that the biogas plant only needs a small CHP unit for the process energy.

Biogas for pure methane and carbon dioxide production

Production of pure methane and carbon dioxide from biogas can be a viable alternative to methane and carbon dioxide production from fossil sources. Both substances are important for the chemical industry. Pure carbon dioxide is used for production of dry ice or for sandblasting with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide from biogas can also be used in agriculture, as fertilizer in greenhouses.
CHP generation is a standard utilization of biogas from AD in many countries with a developed biogas sector.Before CHP conversion, biogas is drained and dried. An engine based CHP power plant has an efficiency of up to 90% and produces 35% electricity and 65% heat. For using the biogas in combined heat and power plants, the heat should be used efficiently. 20 to 40 % of the generated heat can be used for the biogas plant itself, but the additional supply should be used for some industrial use nearby. Also heat driven cooling is an option for using the heat surplus. The simplest way of utilizing biogas is direct burning in boilers or burners, extensively used for the biogas produced by small family digesters. Direct combustion, in natural gas burners, is applied in many countries as well. Biogas can be burned for heat production either on site, or transported by pipeline to the end customers.
Experience shows that the system is capable of generating agricultural, environmental and economic benefits for the investor involved and for the overall society such as:

  • Renewable energy production
  • Reduction of greenhouse gas emission
  • Cheap and environmentally safe recycling of manure and organic wastes
  • Improved safety through sanitation of digestate
  • Improved fertilization efficiency
  • Less nuisance from odors and flies
  • Economical benefits for the farmers

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DIDASK’S VISION

To make the world a better place to live in by the development of economic, efficient and environmental friendly energy technology solutions.

DIDASK’S MISSION

To create environmental sustainability and energy independence through the growth of the biogas industry thus reducing the dependence n fossil fuels.

FORWORD BY PRESIDENT

Biogas is the one of the only technologically fully established

renewable energy source that is capable of producing heat, steam, electricity, vehicle fuel and other valuable byproducts. It is, in the true sense of the word, a dynamic energy source. Biogas has become a fuel to be looked forward to. This growth has begun over the last two decades.

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